MacSpice User's Guide
3 CIRCUIT ELEMENTS AND MODELS
Data fields that are delimited with square brackets '[ ... ]' are optional. All indicated punctuation (parentheses, equal signs, etc.) is optional but indicate the presence of any delimiter. Further, future implementations may require the punctuation as stated. A consistent style adhering to the punctuation shown here makes the input easier to understand. With respect to branch voltages and currents, Spice uniformly uses the associated reference convention (current flows in the direction of voltage drop). Where power is used as an instance parameter the passive sign convention is used, i.e. positive when energy is being transferred into the device from the circuit.
3.1 ELEMENTARY DEVICES
3.1.1 Resistors
General form:
RXXXXXXX N1 N2 VALUE
Examples:
R1 1 2 100
RC1 12 17 1K
N1 and N2 are the two element nodes. VALUE is the resistance (in ohms) and may be positive or negative but not zero.
3.1.2 Semiconductor Resistors
General form:
RXXXXXXX N1 N2 [VALUE] [ MNAME [L=LENGTH] [W=WIDTH] [TEMP=TEMP] ]
Examples:
RLOAD 2 10 10K
RMOD 3 7 RMODEL L=10u W=1u
This is the more general form of the resistor presented in section 3.1.1, and allows the modelling of temperature effects and for the calculation of the actual resistance value from strictly geometric information and the specifications of the process. If VALUE is specified, it overrides the geometric information and defines the resistance. If MNAME is specified, then the resistance may be calculated from the process information in the model MNAME and the given LENGTH and WIDTH. If VALUE is not specified, then MNAME and LENGTH must be specified. If WIDTH is not specified, then it is taken from the default width given in the model. The (optional) TEMP value is the temperature at which this device is to operate, and overrides the temperature specification on the .OPTION幸运飞艇超稳计划群 control line.
3.1.3 Semiconductor Resistor Model (R)
the resistor model consists of process-related device data that allow the resistance to be calculated from geometric information and to be corrected for temperature. the parameters available are:
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example |
---|---|---|---|---|
TC1 | First order temperature coeff. | Ω °C^{−1} | 0.0 | - |
TC2 | Second order temperature coeff. | Ω °C^{−2} | 0.0 | - |
RSH | Sheet resistance | Ω/[] | - | 50 |
DEFW | Default width | m | 1.0×10^{−6} | 2e-6 |
NARROW | Narrowing due to side etching | m | 0.0 | 1e-7 |
TNOM | Parameter measurement temperature | °C | 27 | 50 |
The sheet resistance is used with the narrowing parameter and L and W from the resistor device to determine the nominal resistance by the formula:
$$ r = rsh {{ l - { \it narrow } } \over {w - { \it narrow } } } $$
DEFW is used to supply a default value for W if one is not specified for the device. If either RSH or L is not specified, then the standard default resistance value of 1 kΩ is used. TNOM is used to override the circuit-wide value given on the .OPTIONS幸运飞艇超稳计划群 control line where the parameters of this model have been measured at a different temperature. After the nominal resistance is calculated, it is adjusted for temperature by the formula:
$$ r(t) = r(t_0 ) [ 1 + t_{\rm c1} (t - t_0 ) + t_{\rm c2} (t - t_0)^2 ]. $$
3.1.4 Capacitors
General form:
CXXXXXXX N+ N− VALUE [IC=INCOND]
Examples:
CBYP 13 0 1UF
COSC 17 23 10U IC=3V
N+ and N− are the positive and negative element nodes, respectively. VALUE幸运飞艇超稳计划群 is the capacitance in farads.
The (optional) initial condition is the initial (time-zero) value of capacitor voltage (in volts). Note that the initial conditions (if any) apply 'only' if the UIC option is specified on the .TRAN control line.
3.1.5 Semiconductor Capacitors
General form:
CXXXXXXX N+ N− [VALUE] [ MNAME [L=LENGTH] [W=WIDTH] ] [IC=INCOND]
Examples:
CLOAD 2 10 10P
CMOD 3 7 CMODEL L=10u W=1u
This is the more general form of the capacitor presented in section 3.1.4, and allows for the calculation of the actual capacitance value from strictly geometric information and the specifications of the process. If VALUE is specified, it defines the capacitance. If MNAME is specified, then the capacitance is calculated from the process information in the model MNAME and the given length and width. If VALUE is not specified, then MNAME and L must be specified. If W is not specified, then it is taken from the default width given in the model. Either VALUE or MNAME, L, and W may be specified, but not both sets.
3.1.6 Semiconductor Capacitor Model (C)
The capacitor model contains process information that may be used to compute the capacitance from strictly geometric information.
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example |
---|---|---|---|---|
CJ | Junction bottom capacitance | F m^{−1} | - | 5e-5 |
CJSW | Junction sidewall capacitance | F m^{−1} | - | 2e-11 |
DEFW | Default device width | m | 1.0×10^{−6} | 2e-6 |
NARROW | Narrowing due to side etching | m | 0.0 | 1e-7 |
The capacitor has a capacitance computed as
$$ \begin{align*} c = c_{\rm j} \times ( {\it length } - {\it narrow} ) \times ( {\it width} - {\it narrow} )\\ + 2 c_{\rm jsw} \times ({\it length } + {\it width} - 2 \cdot {\it narrow}) \end{align*} $$
3.1.7 Inductors
General form:
LYYYYYYY N+ N− VALUE [IC=INCOND]
Examples:
LLINK 42 69 1UH
LSHUNT 23 51 10U IC=15.7MA
N+ and N− are the positive and negative element nodes, respectively. VALUE幸运飞艇超稳计划群 is the inductance in henries.
The (optional) initial condition is the initial (time-zero) value of inductor current (in amps) that flows from N+, through the inductor, to N−. Note that the initial conditions (if any) apply only if the UIC option is specified on the .TRAN analysis line.
3.1.8 Coupled (Mutual) Inductors
General form:
KXXXXXXX LYYYYYYY LZZZZZZZ VALUE
Examples:
K43 LAA LBB 0.999
KXFRMR L1 L2 0.87
LYYYYYYY and LZZZZZZZ are the names of the two coupled inductors, and VALUE is the coefficient of coupling, K, which must be in the range −1 ≤ K ≤ +1. Using the 'dot' convention, place a 'dot' on the first node of each inductor. When there are three or more coupled inductors in a system, some sets of coupling values are physically impossible because the magnetic fields would violate energy conservation. MacSpice uses an eigen-value analysis of the coupling matrix to detect such conditions and issue appropriate warnings.
3.1.9 Switches
General form:
SXXXXXXX N+ N− NC+ NC- MODEL [ON|OFF]
WYYYYYYY N+ N− VNAM MODEL [ON|OFF]
Examples:
s1 1 2 3 4 switch1 ON
s2 5 6 3 0 sm2 off
Switch1 1 2 10 0 smodel1
w1 1 2 vclock switchmod1
W2 3 0 vramp sm1 ON
wreset 5 6 vclck lossyswitch OFF
N+ and N− are the nodes between which the switch terminals are connected. The model name is mandatory while the initial conditions are optional. For the voltage controlled switch, NC+ and NC- are the positive and negative controlling nodes respectively. For the current controlled switch, the controlling current is that through the specified voltage source VNAM幸运飞艇超稳计划群. The direction of positive controlling current flow is from the positive node, through the source, to the negative node.
3.1.10 Switch Model (SW/CSW)
Examples:
.model switch1 sw ( vt=0.5 vh=0 )
.model lossyswitch csw ( it=0.5 ron=10 roff=1MEG )
the switch model allows an almost ideal switch to be described in spice. the switch is not quite ideal, in that the resistance can not change from 0 to infinity, but must always have a finite positive value. by proper selection of the on and off resistances, they can be effectively zero and infinity in comparison to other circuit elements. the parameters available are:
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Switch |
---|---|---|---|---|
VT | Threshold voltage | V | 0.0 | S |
IT | Threshold current | A | 0.0 | W |
VH | Hysteresis voltage | V | 0.0 | S |
IH | Hysteresis current | A | 0.0 | W |
RON | On resistance | Ω | 1.0 | both |
ROFF | Off resistance | Ω | 1/GMIN* | both |
*(See the .OPTIONS control line for a description of GMIN幸运飞艇超稳计划群, its default value results in an off-resistance of 1.0 TΩ.)
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 the use of an ideal element that is highly nonlinear such as a switch can cause large discontinuities to occur in the circuit node voltages. a rapid change such as that associated with a switch changing state can cause numerical roundoff or tolerance problems leading to erroneous results or timestep difficulties. the user of switches can improve the situation by taking the following steps:
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 first, it is wise to set ideal switch impedances just high or low enough to be negligible with respect to other circuit elements. using switch impedances that are close to 'ideal' in all cases aggravates the problem of discontinuities mentioned above. of course, when modelling real devices such as mosfets, the on resistance should be adjusted to a realistic level depending on the size of the device being modeled.
If a wide range of ON to OFF resistance must be used in the switches (ROFF/RON > 10^{9}), then the tolerance on errors allowed during transient analysis may need to be decreased by using the .OPTIONS control line and specifying TRTOL to be less than the MacSpice default value of 1.0. should be decreased by using the .OPTIONS control line and specifying TRTOL to be less than the default value of 7.0. When switches are placed around capacitors, then the option CHGTOL should also be reduced. Suggested values for these two options are 0.15 1.0幸运飞艇超稳计划群 and 1e-16 respectively. These changes help Spice to be more careful around the switch points so that no errors are made due to the rapid change in the circuit.
3.2 VOLTAGE AND CURRENT SOURCES
3.2.1 Independent Sources
General form:
VXXXXXXX N+ N− [[DC] DCVALUE] [AC [ACMAG [ACPHASE]]]
+ [DISTOF1 [F1MAG [F1PHASE]]] [DISTOF2 [F2MAG [F2PHASE]]]
IYYYYYYY N+ N− [[DC] DCVALUE] [AC [ACMAG [ACPHASE]]]
+ [DISTOF1 [F1MAG [F1PHASE]]] [DISTOF2 [F2MAG [F2PHASE]]]
Examples:
VCC 10 0 DC 6
VIN 13 2 0.001 AC 1 SIN(0 1 1MEG)
ISRC 23 21 AC 0.333 45.0 SFFM(0 1 10K 5 1K)
VMEAS 12 9
VCARRIER 1 0 DISTOF1 0.1 -90.0
VMODULATOR 2 0 DISTOF2 0.01
IIN1 1 5 AC 1 DISTOF1 DISTOF2 0.001
N+ and N−幸运飞艇超稳计划群 are the positive and negative nodes, respectively. Note that sources need not be grounded. For both voltage and current sources, a positive current is one that flows into the positive node, through the source, and out of the negative node. Voltage sources, in addition to being used for circuit excitation, are the 'ammeters' for SPICE, that is, zero valued voltage sources may be inserted into the circuit for the purpose of measuring current. They of course have no effect on circuit operation since they represent short-circuits.
DCVALUE is the DC and transient analysis value of the source. If the source value is zero both for DC and transient analyses, this value may be omitted. If the source value is time-invariant (e.g., a power supply), then the value may optionally be preceded by the letters DC. The letters 'DC' to identify the time-invariant value are optional but recommended (for clarity).
ACMAG is the AC magnitude and ACPHASE is the AC phase. The source is set to this value in the ac analysis. If ACMAG is omitted following the keyword 'AC', a value of unity is assumed. If ACPHASE is omitted, a value of zero is assumed. If the source is not an ac small-signal input, the keyword 'AC' and the AC values are omitted.
The keywords 'DISTOF1' and 'DISTOF2' specify that the independent source has distortion inputs at the frequencies F1 and F2 respectively (see the description of the .DISTO control line). The keywords may be followed by an optional magnitude and phase. The default values of the magnitude and phase are 1.0 and 0.0 respectively.
Any independent source can be assigned a time-dependent value for transient analysis. If a source is assigned a time-dependent value, the time-zero value is used by the DC analysis that initialises a transient analysis. There are five independent source functions: pulse, exponential, sinusoidal, piece-wise linear, and single-frequency FM. If parameters other than source values are omitted or set to zero, the default values shown are assumed. Here, TSTEP and TSTOP are the transient analysis parameters, see .TRAN for details. In normal circumstances, the time-zero value for the function should match the DCVALUE幸运飞艇超稳计划群 specified for the source.
3.2.1.1. Pulse
General form:
PULSE(V1 V2 TD TR TF PW PER)
Examples:
VIN 3 0 PULSE(-1 1 2NS 2NS 2NS 50NS 100NS)
Parameter | Definition | Default value | Units |
---|---|---|---|
V1 | Initial value | V or A | |
V2 | Pulsed value | V or A | |
TD | Delay time | 0.0 | s |
TR | Rise time | TSTEP | s |
TF | Fall time | TSTEP | s |
PW | Pulse width | TSTOP | s |
PER | Period | TSTOP | s |
幸运飞艇超稳计划群a single pulse so specified is described by the following table:
Time | Value |
---|---|
0 | V1 |
TD | V1 |
TD+TR | V2 |
TD+TR+PW | V2 |
TD+TR+PW+TF | V1 |
TSTOP | V1 |
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 intermediate points are determined by linear interpolation.
3.2.1.2 Sinusoidal
General form:
SIN(VO VA FREQ TD THETA)
Examples:
VIN 3 0 SIN(0 1 100MEG 1NS 1E10)
Parameters | Definition | Default value | Units |
---|---|---|---|
VO | Offset | V or A | |
VA | Amplitude | V or A | |
FREQ | Frequency | 1/TSTOP | Hz |
TD | Delay | 0.0 | s |
THETA | Damping factor | 0.0 | s^{−1} |
the shape of the waveform is described by the following table:
Time, t | Value |
---|---|
0 to TD | VO |
TD to TSTOP | VO+VA · sin(2π×FREQ×[t−TD]) · exp([TD−t]×THETA) |
3.2.1.3 Exponential
General form:
EXP(V1 V2 TD1 TAU1 TD2 TAU2)
Examples:
VIN 3 0 EXP(-4 -1 2NS 30NS 60NS 40NS)
Parameters | Definition | Default value | Units |
---|---|---|---|
V1 | Initial value | V or A | |
V2 | Pulsed value | V or A | |
TD1 | Rise delay time | 0.0 | s |
TAU1 | Rise time constant | TSTEP | s |
TD2 | Fall delay time | TD1+TSTEP | s |
TAU2 | Fall time constant | TSTEP | s |
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 the shape of the waveform is described by the following table:
Time, t | Value |
---|---|
0 to TD1 | V1 |
TD1 to TD2 | V2+(V1−V2) · (exp([TD1−t]/TAU1) |
TD2 to TSTOP | V1+(V1−V2) · exp([TD1−t]/TAU1)+(V2−V1) · exp([TD2−t]/TAU2) |
3.2.1.4 Piece-Wise Linear
General form:
PWL(T1 VAL1 [T2 VAL2 T3 VAL3 ... TN VALN ])
Examples:
VCLOCK 7 5 PWL(0 -7 10NS -7 11NS -3 17NS -3 18NS -7 50NS -7)
Each pair of arguments (T_{i}, VAL_{i}) specifies a value for the source VAL_{i} (in volts or amps) at time T_{i}. The times must increase monotonically. Prior to T1 the source value is VAL1, and after TN the source remains at VALN. Between specified timepoints, the value is determined by linear interpolation.
3.2.1.5 Single-Frequency FM
General form:
SFFM(VO VA FC MDI FS)
Examples:
V1 12 0 SFFM(0 1M 20K 5 1K)
Parameter | Definition | Default value | Units |
---|---|---|---|
VO | Offset | - | volts or amps |
VA | Amplitude | - | volts or amps |
FC | Carrier frequency | 1/TSTOP | Hz |
MDI | Modulation index | - | - |
FS | Signal frequency | 1/TSTOP | Hz |
the shape of the waveform is described by the following equation:
V(t) = VO+VA · sin(2π · FC · t+MDI · sin[2π · FS · t])
3.2.2 Linear Dependent Sources
spice allows circuits to contain linear dependent sources characterized by any of the four equations:
i = g · v | v = e · v | i = f · i | v = h · i |
where g, e, f, and h are constants representing transconductance, voltage gain, current gain, and transresistance, respectively.
3.2.2.1 Linear Voltage-Controlled Current Sources
General form:
GXXXXXXX N+ N− NC+ NC- VALUE
Examples:
G1 2 0 5 0 0.1MMHO
N+ and N− are the positive and negative nodes, respectively. Current flow is from the positive node, through the source, to the negative node. NC+ and NC- are the positive and negative controlling nodes, respectively. VALUE is the transconductance (in mhos).
3.2.2.2 Linear Voltage-Controlled Voltage Sources
General form:
EXXXXXXX N+ N− NC+ NC- VALUE
Examples:
E1 2 3 14 1 2.0
N+ is the positive node, and N− is the negative node. NC+ and NC- are the positive and negative controlling nodes, respectively. VALUE is the voltage gain.
3.2.2.3 Linear Current-Controlled Current Sources
General form:
FXXXXXXX N+ N− SRCNAM VALUE
Examples:
F1 13 5 VSENS 5
N+ and N− are the positive and negative nodes, respectively. Current flow is from the positive node, through the source, to the negative node. SRCNAM is the name of a source device through which the controlling current flows. In the common case of a voltage source, the direction of positive controlling current flow is from the positive node, through the source, to the negative node. VALUE幸运飞艇超稳计划群 is the current gain.
3.2.2.4 Linear Current-Controlled Voltage Sources
General form:
HXXXXXXX N+ N− SRCNAM VALUE
Examples:
HX 5 17 VZ 0.5K
N+ and N− are the positive and negative nodes, respectively. SRCNAM is the name of a source device through which the controlling current flows. In the common case of a voltage source, the direction of positive controlling current flow is from the positive node, through the source, to the negative node. VALUE is the transresistance (in ohms).
3.2.3 Non-linear Dependent Sources
General form:
BXXXXXXX N+ N− [ I=EXPR | V=EXPR ]
Examples:
B1 0 1 I=cos(v(1))+sin(v(2))
B1 0 1 V=ln(cos(log(v(1,2)^2)))-v(3)^4+v(2)^v(1)
B1 3 4 I=17
B1 3 4 V=exp(pi^i(vdd))
N+ is the positive node, and N− is the negative node. The values of the V and I parameters determine the voltages and currents across and through the device, respectively. If I is given then the device is a current source, and if V幸运飞艇超稳计划群 is given the device is a voltage source. One and only one of these parameters must be given.
MacSpice translates the poly() syntax used in Spice 2 (see Appendix C) into a Spice 3 compatible equivalent, normally a nonlinear 'B' source. [Note: The Spice 3 non-linear sources are not compatible with the poly() syntax used in Spice 2. Appendix C is included to facilitate conversion of old source.]
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 the small-signal ac behavior of the nonlinear source is a linear dependent source (or sources) with a proportionality constant equal to the derivative (or derivatives) of the source at the dc operating point.
The expressions given for V and I may be any function of voltages and currents through voltage sources in the system. The following functions of real variables are defined:
abs() | sgn() | u() | uramp() | ||
exp() | ln() | log() | sqrt() | ||
cos() | sin() | tan() | acos() | asin() | atan() |
cosh() | sinh() | tanh() | acosh() | asinh() | atanh() |
the function abs() takes the absolute value, sgn() is the sign function, u() is the unit-step function, and uramp() is the integral of the unit step:
x < 0.0 | x = 0.0 | x > 0.0 | |
---|---|---|---|
abs(x) | −x | 0.0 | x |
sgn(x) | −1 | 0 | +1 |
u(x) | 0.0 | 0.5 | 1.0 |
uramp(x) | 0.0 | 0.0 | x |
these functions are useful in synthesizing piece-wise non-linear functions, though convergence may be adversely affected.
the following standard operators are defined:
+ | − | * | / | ^ | unary − |
If the argument of log(), ln(), or sqrt() becomes less than zero, the absolute value of the argument is used. If a divisor becomes zero or the argument of log() or ln() becomes zero, an error will result. Other problems may occur when the argument for a function in a partial derivative enters a region where that function is undefined. If the argument of sqrt() becomes negative, a divisor becomes zero or the argument of log() or ln() becomes zero or negative, an error will result. Other problems may occur when the argument for a function in a partial derivative enters a region where that function is undefined.
to get time into the expression you can integrate the current from a constant current source with a capacitor and use the resulting voltage (don't forget to set the initial voltage across the capacitor). nonlinear resistors, capacitors, and inductors may be synthesized with the nonlinear dependent source. nonlinear resistors are obvious. nonlinear capacitors and inductors are implemented with their linear counterparts by a change of variables implemented with the nonlinear dependent source. the following subcircuit will implement a nonlinear capacitor:
.Subckt nlcap pos neg
* Bx: calculate f(input voltage)
Bx 1 0 v = f(v(pos,neg))
* Cx: linear capacitance
Cx 2 0 1
* Vx: Ammeter to measure current into the capacitor
Vx 2 1 DC 0volts
* Drive the current through Cx back into the circuit
Fx pos neg Vx 1
.ends
non-linear inductors are similar.
3.3 TRANSMISSION LINES
Transmission line elements need to be used with care. Typically, the element models only one propagating mode. This is an issue because electrical transmission lines usually have more than one mode. For example, a length of coaxial cable, has two modes (inner-shield and shield-ground) and a simple pair of wires also has two modes (differential and common). The example file 'ltra3.cir' shows what is required to simulate a pair of wires using a single-mode model. Refer to [8] for the details of the calculations required. Only the transmission of the voltage and current between N1 and N3 is represented by single-mode elements, N2 and N4 are merely the respective current mirrors of these.
although the tables below imply that all lengths must be given in metres, this is not the case; any standard may be used provided it is used consistently for the 'per unit length' parameters.
Consider sacrificing compatibility with Spice3 and using the TXL model (§3.3.6.1) and CPL model (§3.3.6.2) devices for modelling a single lossy transmission line and a coupled multiconductor line system, respectively. These elements use the recursive convolution method and were originally developed for KSpice and can effectively replace the much slower LTRA model which uses a state-based approach.
3.3.1 Lossless Transmission Lines
General form:
TXXXXXXX N1 N2 N3 N4 Z0=VALUE [TD=VALUE] [ F=FREQ [NL=NRMLEN] ]
+ [IC=V1, I1, V2, I2]
Examples:
T1 1 0 2 0 Z0=50 TD=10NS
N1 and N2 are the nodes at port 1; N3 and N4 are the nodes at port 2.
Z0 is the characteristic impedance. The length of the line may be expressed in either
of two forms. The transmission delay, TD, may be specified directly (as TD=10ns
, for example).
Alternatively, a frequency F may be given, together with NL, the normalized electrical length
of the transmission line with respect to the wavelength in the line at the frequency F. If a
frequency is specified but NL is omitted, 0.25 is assumed (that is, the frequency is assumed
to be the quarter-wave frequency). Note that although both forms for expressing the line
length are indicated as optional, one of the two must be specified.
Note that this element models only one propagating mode. If all four nodes are distinct in the actual circuit, then two modes may be excited. To simulate such a situation, two transmission-line elements are required. (see the example in Appendix A for further clarification.)
The (optional) initial condition specification consists of the voltage and current at each of the transmission line ports. Note that the initial conditions (if any) apply 'only' if the UIC option is specified on the .TRAN幸运飞艇超稳计划群 control line.
Note that a lossy transmission line (see §3.3.2幸运飞艇超稳计划群) with its loss set to zero may be more accurate than the lossless transmission line due to implementation details.
3.3.2 Lossy Transmission Lines
General form:
OXXXXXXX N1 N2 N3 N4 MNAME
Examples:
O23 1 0 2 0 LOSSYMOD
OCONNECT 10 5 20 5 INTERCONNECT
This is a two-port convolution model for single-conductor lossy transmission lines. N1 and N2 are the nodes at port 1; N3 and N4 are the nodes at port 2. Note that a lossy transmission line with zero loss may be more accurate than the lossless transmission line due to implementation details.
3.3.3 Lossy Transmission Line Model (LTRA)
The uniform RLC/RC/LC/RG transmission line model (referred to as the LTRA model henceforth) models a uniform constant-parameter distributed transmission line. The RC and LC cases may also be modelled using the URC and TRA models; however, the newer LTRA model is usually faster and more accurate than these, but is slower than the KSpice CPL/TXL models. The operation of the LTRA model is based on the convolution of the transmission line's impulse responses with its inputs (see [8]).
the ltra model takes a number of parameters, some of which must be given and some of which are optional.
There is a bug in Spice 3f5 which means that an .AC analysis of the LTRA model only gives correct results in cases when LEN=1.0 . This has been fixed in MacSpice, but code portable to Spice 3 is possible by setting LEN=1.0 and entering values for L, C, etc.幸运飞艇超稳计划群 for the whole line, not per unit length.
Name | Parameter | Units/type | Default | Example |
---|---|---|---|---|
R | Resistance/length | Ω m^{−1} | 0.0 | 0.2 |
L | Inductance/length | H m^{−1} | 0.0 | 9.13e-9 |
G | Conductance/length | S m^{−1} | 0.0 | 0.0 |
C | Capacitance/length | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 3.65e-12 |
LEN | Length of line | m | No default | 1.0 |
REL | Breakpoint control | 1 | 0.5 | |
ABS | Breakpoint control | 1 | 5 | |
NOSTEPLIMIT | Don't limit timestep to less than line delay | flag | Not set | Set |
NOCONTROL | Don't do complex timestep control | flag | Not set | Set |
LININTERP | Use linear interpolation | flag | Not set | Set |
MIXEDINTERP | Use linear when quadratic seems bad | flag | Not set | Set |
COMPACTREL | Special reltol for history compaction | RELTOL | 1.0e-3 | |
COMPACTABS | Special abstol for history compaction | ABSTOL | 1.0e-9 | |
TRUNCNR | Use Newton-Raphson method for timestep control | flag | Not set | Set |
TRUNCDONTCUT | Don't limit timestep to keep impulse-response errors low | flag | Not set | Set |
The following types of lines have been implemented so far: RLC (uniform transmission line with series loss only), RC (uniform RC line), LC (lossless transmission line), and RG (distributed series resistance and parallel conductance only). Any other combination will yield erroneous results and should not be tried. The length LEN of the line must be specified.
NOSTEPLIMIT is a flag that will remove the default restriction of limiting time-steps to less than the line delay in the RLC case. NOCONTROL is a flag that prevents the default limiting of the time-step based on convolution error criteria in the RLC and RC cases. This speeds up simulation but may in some cases reduce the accuracy of results. LININTERP is a flag that, when specified, will use linear interpolation instead of the default quadratic interpolation for calculating delayed signals. MIXEDINTERP is a flag that, when specified, uses a metric for judging whether quadratic interpolation is not applicable and if so uses linear interpolation; otherwise it uses the default quadratic interpolation. TRUNCDONTCUT is a flag that removes the default cutting of the time-step to limit errors in the actual calculation of impulse-response related quantities. COMPACTREL and COMPACTABS are quantities that control the compaction of the past history of values stored for convolution. Larger values of these lower accuracy but usually increase simulation speed. These are to be used with the TRYTOCOMPACT option, described in the .OPTIONS section. TRUNCNR is a flag that turns on the use of Newton-Raphson iterations to determine an appropriate timestep in the timestep control routines. The default is a trial and error procedure by cutting the previous timestep in half. REL and ABS are quantities that control the setting of breakpoints.
The option most worth experimenting with for increasing the speed of simulation is REL. The default value of 1 is usually safe from the point of view of accuracy but occasionally increases computation time. A value greater than 2 eliminates all breakpoints and may be worth trying depending on the nature of the rest of the circuit, keeping in mind that it might not be safe from the viewpoint of accuracy. Breakpoints may usually be entirely eliminated if it is expected the circuit will not display sharp discontinuities. Values between 0 and 1 are usually not required but may be used for setting many breakpoints.
COMPACTREL may also be experimented with when the option TRYTOCOMPACT is specified in a .OPTIONS control line. The legal range is between 0 and 1. Larger values usually decrease the accuracy of the simulation but in some cases improve speed. If TRYTOCOMPACT is not specified on a .OPTIONS control line, history compaction is not attempted and accuracy is high. NOCONTROL, TRUNCDONTCUT and NOSTEPLIMIT also tend to increase speed at the expense of accuracy.
3.3.4 Uniform Distributed RC Lines (Lossy)
General form:
UXXXXXXX N1 N2 N3 MNAME L=LEN [N=LUMPS]
Examples:
U1 1 2 0 URCMOD L=50U
URC2 1 12 2 UMODL l=1MIL N=6
N1 and N2 are the two element nodes the RC line connects, while N3 is the
node to which the capacitances are connected. MNAME is the model name, LEN is the
length of the RC line in meters. If N
is specified, LUMPS幸运飞艇超稳计划群 is the number of lumped segments to
use in modelling the RC line (see the model description for the action taken if this parameter is
omitted).
3.3.5 Uniform Distributed RC Model (URC)
The URC model is derived from a model proposed by L. Gertzberg in 1974. The model is accomplished by a subcircuit type expansion of the URC line into a network of lumped RC segments with internally generated nodes. The length represented by each segments increases in a geometric progression toward the middle of the URC line, with K幸运飞艇超稳计划群 as the ratio between adjacent segments. The number of lumped segments used, if not specified for the URC line device, is determined by the following formula:
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 $$ n = { { \log \left[ f_{\rm max} {r \over l}{c \over l} 2\pi l^2 \left({k-1 \over k}\right)^2\right]} \over {\log(k)} } $$
The URC line is made up strictly of resistor and capacitor segments unless the ISPERL parameter is given a non-zero value, in which case the capacitors are replaced with reverse biased diodes with a zero-bias junction capacitance equivalent to the capacitance replaced, and with a saturation current of ISPERL in amps per meter of transmission line and an optional series resistance equivalent to RSPERL in ohms per meter.
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example | Area |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
K | Proportionality constant | - | 1.5 | 1.2 | - |
FMAX | Maximum frequency of interest | Hz | 1.0 G | 6.5Meg | - |
RPERL | Resistance per unit length | Ω m^{−1} | 1000 | 10 | - |
CPERL | Capacitance per unit length | F m^{−1} | 10^{−12} | 123p | - |
ISPERL | Diode saturation current per unit length | A m^{−1} | 0 | - | - |
RSPERL | Diode resistance per unit length | Ω m^{−1} | 0 | - | - |
3.3.6 KSpice Transmission Line Models
WARNING! These devices are installed in MacSpice but have not had extensive validation. They only implement the op, dc and tran analyses. Please report bugs.
General form:
YXXXXXXX N1 N2 N3 N4 MNAME [LENGTH = LEN]
PXXXXXXX W1A [W2A ... ] W1B [W2B ... ] MNAME [LENGTH = LEN]
Examples (TXL):
Y2 2 0 3 0 YMOD3
Y3 APLUS AMINUS BPLUS BMINUS YMOD3 LENGTH=45
Examples (CPL):
P1 2 3 4 5 0 22 33 44 55 0 LOSSYMODEL
P3 IN1 IN2 IN3 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 PMODXX LENGTH=45mm
The value of LEN is the line-length in metres. In the TXL case, N1 and N2 are the nodes at port 1; N3 and N4 are the nodes at port 2. In the CPL case, WnA and WnB are the two ends of the n幸运飞艇超稳计划群th conductor.
if backwards compatibility with spice3 is not required, these elements — which use a recursive convolution method of calculation and were originally developed for — can potentially replace the ltra model which uses a much slower state-based approach.
3.3.6.1 Simple Lossy Transmission Model (TXL)
Example:
.MODEL YMOD TXL R=12.45 L=8.972e-9 G=0 C=0.468e-12 LENGTH=16
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 note that the y-element models only one propagating mode using the following parameters:
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example |
---|---|---|---|---|
TXL | Flag indicates model type | - | - | - |
R | Resistance per unit length | Ω m^{−1} | 0.0 | 10 |
L | Inductance per unit length | H m^{−1} | 0.0 | 0.3u |
G | Conductance per unit length | S m^{−1} | 0.0 | 12m |
C | Capacitance per unit length | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 1p |
LENGTH | Length | m | 0.0 | 6.5mm |
3.3.6.2 Simple Coupled Multiconductor Model (CPL)
Example:
.MODEL LOSSYMODEL CPL
+R=11.8 0 0 0
+ 11.8 0 0
+ 11.8 0
+ 11.8
+L=354n 213n 0 0
+ 354n 213n 0
+ 354n 213n
+ 354n
+G=0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
+C=138p -11.8p 0 0
+ 138p -11.8p 0
+ 138p -11.8p
+ 138p
+length=0.16
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 the p-element models multiple modes using the following parameters:
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example |
---|---|---|---|---|
CPL | Flag indicates model type | - | - | - |
R | Resistance matrix per unit length | Ω m^{−1} | 0.0 | 10 |
L | Inductance matrix per unit length | H m^{−1} | 0.0 | 265n |
G | Conductance matrix per unit length | S m^{−1} | 0.0 | 12m |
C | Capacitance matrix per unit length | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 300p |
LENGTH | Length | m | 0.0 | 6.5mm |
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 up to 4-wires plus ground can be specified. as this is a multiconductor system the upper-diagonal elements of the mutual inductance / capacitance / conductance matrices must be specified.
3.4 TRANSISTORS AND DIODES
The area factor used on the diode, BJT, JFET, and MESFET devices determines the number of equivalent parallel devices of a specified model. The affected parameters are marked with an asterisk under the heading 'area' in the model descriptions below. Several geometric factors associated with the channel and the drain and source diffusions can be specified on the MOSFET device line.
Two different forms of initial conditions may be specified for some devices. The first form is included to improve the dc convergence for circuits that contain more than one stable state. If a device is specified OFF, the dc operating point is determined with the terminal voltages for that device set to zero. After convergence is obtained, the program continues to iterate to obtain the exact value for the terminal voltages. If a circuit has more than one dc stable state, the OFF option can be used to force the solution to correspond to a desired state. If a device is specified OFF when in reality the device is conducting, the program still obtains the correct solution (assuming the solutions converge) but more iterations are required since the program must independently converge to two separate solutions. The .NODESET control line serves a similar purpose as the OFF option. The .NODESET option is easier to apply and is the preferred means to aid convergence.
The second form of initial conditions are specified for use with the transient analysis. These are true 'initial conditions' as opposed to the convergence aids above. See the description of the .IC control line and the .TRAN control line for a detailed explanation of initial conditions.
3.4.1 Junction Diodes
General form:
DXXXXXXX N+ N− MNAME [AREA] [OFF] [IC=VD] [TEMP=T]
Examples:
DBRIDGE 2 10 DIODE1
DCLMP 3 7 DMOD 3.0 IC=0.2
N+ and N− are the positive (anode) and negative (cathode) nodes, respectively. MNAME is the model name, AREA is the area factor,
and OFF indicates an (optional) starting condition on the
device for dc analysis. If the area factor is omitted, a
value of 1.0 is assumed. The (optional) initial condition
specification using IC=VD is intended for use with the UIC
option on the .TRAN control line, when a transient analysis
is desired starting from other than the quiescent operating
point. The (optional) TEMP value is the temperature at
which this device is to operate, and overrides the temperature specification on the
.OPTION control line.
3.4.2 Diode Model (D)
The dc characteristics of the diode are determined by the parameters IS and N. An ohmic resistance, RS, is included. Charge storage effects are modeled by a transit time, TT, and a nonlinear depletion layer capacitance which is determined by the parameters CJO, VJ, and M. The temperature dependence of the saturation current is defined by the parameters EG, the energy and XTI, the saturation current temperature exponent. The nominal temperature at which these parameters were measured is TNOM, which defaults to the circuit-wide value specified on the .OPTIONS control line. Reverse breakdown is modeled by an exponential increase in the reverse diode current and is determined by the parameters BV and IBV (both of which are positive numbers).
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example | Area |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
IS | Saturation current | A | 1.0e-14 | 1.0e-14 | * |
RS | Ohmic resistance | Ω | 0 | 10 | * |
N | Emission coefficient | - | 1 | 1.0 | |
TT | Transit-time | s | 0 | 0.1ns | |
CJO | Zero-bias junction capacitance | F | 0 | 2pF | * |
VJ | Junction potential | V | 1 | 0.6 | |
M | Grading coefficient | - | 0.5 | 0.5 | |
EG | Activation energy | eV | 1.11 | 1.11 Si 0.69 Sbd 0.67 Ge | |
XTI | Saturation-current temperature exponent | - | 3.0 | 3.0 jn 2.0 Sbd | |
KF | Flicker noise coefficient | - | 0 | ||
AF | Flicker noise exponent | - | 1 | ||
FC | Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance formula | - | 0.5 | ||
BV | Reverse breakdown voltage | V | ∞ | 40.0 | |
IBV | Current at breakdown voltage | A | 1.0e-3 | ||
TNOM | Parameter measurement temperature | °C | 27 | 50 |
3.4.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
General form:
QXXXXXXX NC NB NE [NS] MNAME [AREA] [OFF] [IC=VBE, VCE] [TEMP=T]
Examples:
Q23 10 24 13 QMOD IC=0.6, 5.0
Q50A 11 26 4 20 MOD1
NC, NB, and NE are the collector, base, and emitter
nodes, respectively. NS is the (optional) substrate node.
If unspecified, ground is used. MNAME is the model name,
AREA is the area factor, and OFF indicates an (optional)
initial condition on the device for the DC analysis. If the
area factor is omitted, a value of 1.0 is assumed. The
(optional) initial condition specification using IC=VBE, VCE
is intended for use with the UIC
option on the .TRAN control
line, when a transient analysis is desired starting from
other than the quiescent operating point. See the
.IC control line description
for a better way to set transient initial conditions. The (optional) TEMP
value is the temperature at which this device is to operate, and overrides the
temperature specification on the .OPTION control line.
3.4.4 BJT Models (NPN/PNP)
the bipolar junction transistor model in spice is an adaptation of the integral charge control model of gummel and poon. this modified gummel-poon model extends the original model to include several effects at high bias levels. the model automatically simplifies to the simpler ebers-moll model when certain parameters are not specified. the parameter names used in the modified gummel-poon model have been chosen to be more easily understood by the program user, and to reflect better both physical and circuit design thinking.
The dc model is defined by the parameters IS, BF, NF, ISE, IKF, and NE which determine the forward current gain characteristics, IS, BR, NR, ISC, IKR, and NC which determine the reverse current gain characteristics, and VAF and VAR which determine the output conductance for forward and reverse regions. Three ohmic resistances RB, RC, and RE are included, where RB can be high current dependent. Base charge storage is modeled by forward and reverse transit times, TF and TR, the forward transit time TF being bias dependent if desired, and nonlinear depletion layer capacitances which are determined by CJE, VJE, and MJE for the B-E junction, CJC, VJC, and MJC for the B-C junction and CJS, VJS, and MJS for the C-S (Collector-Substrate) junction. The temperature dependence of the saturation current, IS, is determined by the energy-gap, EG, and the saturation current temperature exponent, XTI. Additionally base current temperature dependence is modeled by the beta temperature exponent XTB in the new model. The values specified are assumed to have been measured at the temperature TNOM, which can be specified on the .OPTIONS control line or overridden by a specification on the .MODEL line.
the bjt parameters used in the modified gummel-poon model are listed below. the parameter names used in earlier versions of spice 2 are still accepted.
modified gummel-poon bjt parameters.
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example | Area |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
IS | Transport saturation current | A | 1.0e-16 | 1.0e-15 | * |
BF | Ideal maximum forward beta | - | 100 | 100 | |
NF | Forward current emission coefficient | - | 1.0 | 1 | |
VAF | Forward Early voltage | V | ∞ | 200 | |
IKF | Corner for forward beta high current roll-off | A | ∞ | 0.01 | * |
ISE | B-E leakage saturation current | A | 0 | 1.0e-13 | * |
NE | B-E leakage emission coefficient | - | 1.5 | 2 | |
BR | Ideal maximum reverse beta | - | 1 | 0.1 | |
NR | Reverse current emission coefficient | - | 1 | 1 | |
VAR | Reverse Early voltage | V | ∞ | 200 | |
IKR | Corner for reverse beta high current roll-off | A | ∞ | 0.01 | * |
ISC | B-C leakage saturation current | A | 0 | 1.0e-13 | * |
NC | B-C leakage emission coefficient | - | 2 | 1.5 | |
RB | Zero bias base resistance | Ω | 0 | 100 | * |
IRB | Current where base resistance falls halfway to its min value | A | ∞ | 0.1 | * |
RBM | Minimum base resistance at high currents | Ω | RB | 10 | * |
RE | Emitter resistance | Ω | 0 | 1 | * |
RC | Collector resistance | Ω | 0 | 10 | * |
CJE | B-E zero-bias depletion capacitance | F | 0 | 2pF | * |
VJE | B-E built-in potential | V | 0.75 | 0.6 | |
MJE | B-E junction exponential factor | - | 0.33 | 0.33 | |
TF | Ideal forward transit time | s | 0 | 0.1ns | |
XTF | Coefficient for bias dependence of TF | - | 0 | ||
VTF | Voltage describing VBC dependence of TF | V | ∞ | ||
ITF | High-current parameter for effect on TF A | 0 | * | ||
PTF | Excess phase at freq=1.0/(TF*2π) Hz | deg | 0 | ||
CJC | B-C zero-bias depletion capacitance | F | 0 | 2pF | * |
VJC | B-C built-in potential | V | 0.75 | 0.5 | |
MJC | B-C junction exponential factor | - | 0.33 | 0.5 | |
XCJC | Fraction of B-C depletion capacitance connected to internal base node | - | 1 | ||
TR | Ideal reverse transit time | s | 0 | 10ns | |
CJS | Zero-bias collector-substrate capacitance | F | 0 | 2pF | * |
VJS | Substrate junction built-in potential | V | 0.75 | ||
MJS | Substrate junction exponential factor | - | 0 | 0.5 | |
XTB | Forward and reverse beta temperature exponent | - | 0 | ||
EG | Energy gap for temperature effect on IS | eV | 1.11 | ||
XTI | Temperature exponent for effect on IS | - | 3 | ||
KF | Flicker-noise coefficient | - | 0 | ||
AF | Flicker-noise exponent | - | 1 | ||
FC | Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance formula | - | 0.5 | ||
TNOM | Parameter measurement temperature | °C | 27 | 50 |
3.4.5 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs)
General form:
JXXXXXXX ND NG NS MNAME [AREA] [OFF] [IC=VDS, VGS] [TEMP=T]
Examples:
J1 7 2 3 JM1 OFF
ND, NG, and NS are the drain, gate, and source nodes, respectively. MNAME is the model name, AREA is the area factor, and OFF indicates an (optional) initial condition on the device for dc analysis. If the area factor is omitted, a value of 1.0 is assumed. The (optional) initial condition specification, using 'IC=VDS, VGS' is intended for use with the UIC option on the .TRAN control line, when a transient analysis is desired starting from other than the quiescent operating point. See the .IC control line for a better way to set initial conditions. The (optional) TEMP value is the temperature at which this device is to operate, and overrides the temperature specification on the .OPTION control line.
3.4.6 JFET Models (NJF/PJF)
MacSpice provides two JFET device models. The variable LEVEL幸运飞艇超稳计划群 specifies the model to be used:
LEVEL=1 | Shichman-Hodges (described below) |
LEVEL=2 | Parker-Skellern jfet mesfet model (refer to the documentation) |
The level 1 JFET model is derived from the FET model of Shichman and Hodges. The dc characteristics are defined by the parameters VTO and BETA, which determine the variation of drain current with gate voltage, LAMBDA, which determines the output conductance, and IS, the saturation current of the two gate junctions. Two ohmic resistances, RD and RS, are included. Charge storage is modeled by nonlinear depletion layer capacitances for both gate junctions which vary as the −1/2 power of junction voltage and are defined by the parameters CGS, CGD, and PB.
Note that in Spice3f and later, a fitting parameter B has been added. For details, see [9].
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example | Area |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
VTO | Threshold voltage (V_{TO}) | V | -2.0 | -2.0 | |
BETA | Transconductance parameter (B) | A V^{−2} | 1.0e-4 | 1.0e-3 | * |
LAMBDA | Channel-length modulation parameter (L) | V^{−1} | 0 | 1.0e-4 | |
RD | Drain ohmic resistance | Ω | 0 | 100 | * |
RS | Source ohmic resistance | Ω | 0 | 100 | * |
CGS | Zero-bias G-S junction capacitance (C_{gd}) | F | 0 | 5pF | * |
CGD | Zero-bias G-D junction capacitance (C_{gd}) | F | 0 | 1pF | * |
PB | Gate junction potential | V | 1 | 0.6 | |
IS | Gate junction saturation current (I_{S} ) | A | 1.0e-14 | 1.0e-14 | * |
B | Doping tail parameter | - | 1 | 1.1 | |
KF | Flicker noise coefficient | - | 0 | ||
AF | Flicker noise exponent | - | 1 | ||
FC | Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance formula | - | 0.5 | ||
TNOM | Parameter measurement temperature | °C | 27 | 50 |
3.4.7 MOSFETs
General form:
MXXXXXXX ND NG NS NB MNAME [L=VAL] [W=VAL] [AD=VAL] [AS=VAL]
+ [PD=VAL] [PS=VAL] [NRD=VAL] [NRS=VAL] [OFF]
+ [IC=VDS, VGS, VBS] [TEMP=T]
Examples:
M1 24 2 0 20 TYPE1
M31 2 17 6 10 MODM L=5U W=2U
M1 2 9 3 0 MOD1 L=10U W=5U AD=100P AS=100P PD=40U PS=40U
ND, NG, NS, and NB are the drain, gate, source, and bulk (substrate) nodes, respectively. MNAME is the model name. L and W are the channel length and width, in meters. AD and AS are the areas of the drain and source diffusions, in square-meters. Note that the suffix 'u' specifies microns (10^{−6} m) and 'p' square-microns (10^{−12} m^{2}). If any of L, W, AD, or AS are not specified, default values are used. The use of defaults simplifies input file preparation, as well as the editing required if device geometries are to be changed. PD and PS are the perimeters of the drain and source junctions, in meters. NRD and NRS designate the equivalent number of squares of the drain and source diffusions; these values multiply the sheet resistance RSH specified on the .MODEL control line for an accurate representation of the parasitic series drain and source resistance of each transistor. PD and PS default to 0.0 while NRD and NRS default to 1.0. 'OFF' indicates an (optional) initial condition on the device for DC analysis. The (optional) initial condition specification using 'IC=VDS, VGS, VBS' is intended for use with the UIC option on the .TRAN control line, when a transient analysis is desired starting from other than the quiescent operating point. See the .IC control line for a better and more convenient way to specify transient initial conditions. The (optional) TEMP value is the temperature at which this device is to operate, and overrides the temperature specification on the .OPTION control line. The temperature specification is valid for level 1, 2, 3, and 6 MOSFETs, but not for level 4 or 5 (BSIM) devices.
3.4.8 MOSFET Models (NMOS/PMOS)
SPICE provides six MOSFET device models, which differ in the formulation of the I-V characteristic. The variable LEVEL specifies the model to be used:
LEVEL=1 | Shichman-Hodges |
LEVEL=2 | MOS2 (as described in [1]) |
LEVEL=3 | MOS3, a semi-empirical model (see [1]) |
LEVEL=4 | BSIM (as described in [3]) |
LEVEL=5 | New BSIM (BSIM2; as described in [5]) |
LEVEL=6 | MOS6 (as described in [2]) |
MacSpice provides additional mosfet devices.
The DC characteristics of the level 1 through level 3 MOSFETs are defined by the device parameters VTO, KP, LAMBDA, PHI and GAMMA. If a process parameter value is specified (e.g. (NSUB, TOX, etc. ) then Spice will calculate corresponding values for VTO, etc. and use these calculated values as defaults instead of the defaults listed in the tables below. User-specified values for VTO, etc. will override these calculated defaults. VTO is positive (negative) for enhancement mode and negative (positive) for depletion mode N-channel (P-channel) devices. Charge storage is modelled by three constant capacitors, CGSO, CGDO, and CGBO which represent overlap capacitances, by the nonlinear thin-oxide capacitance which is distributed among the gate, source, drain, and bulk regions, and by the nonlinear depletion-layer capacitances for both substrate junctions divided into bottom and periphery, which vary as the MJ and MJSW power of junction voltage respectively, and are determined by the parameters CBD, CBS, CJ, CJSW, MJ, MJSW and PB. Charge storage effects are modelled by the piece-wise linear voltages-dependent capacitance model proposed by Meyer. The thin-oxide charge-storage effects are treated slightly different for the LEVEL=1 model. These voltage-dependent capacitances are included only if TOX is specified in the input description and they are represented using Meyer's formulation.
There is some overlap among the parameters describing the junctions, e.g. the reverse current can be input either as IS (in A) or as JS (in A/m^{2}). Whereas the first is an absolute value the second is multiplied by AD and AS to give the reverse current of the drain and source junctions respectively. This methodology has been chosen since there is no sense in relating always junction characteristics with AD and AS entered on the device line; the areas can be defaulted. The same idea applies also to the zero-bias junction capacitances CBD and CBS (in F) on one hand, and CJ (in F/m^{2}) on the other. The parasitic drain and source series resistance can be expressed as either RD and RS (in ohms) or RSH (in ohms/sq.), the latter being multiplied by the number of squares NRD and NRS input on the device line.
A discontinuity in the MOS level 3 model with respect to the KAPPA parameter has been detected (see [10]). The supplied fix has been implemented in Spice3f2 and later. Since this fix may affect parameter fitting, the option 'BADMOS3' may be set to use the old implementation (see the section on simulation variables and the '.OPTIONS' line). SPICE level 1, 2, 3 and 6 parameters:
# | Name | Level | Parameter | Units | Default | Example |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
1 | LEVEL | 1–3, 6 | Model index | - | 1 | |
2 | VTO | 1–3, 6 | Zero-bias threshold voltage (V_{TO)} | V | 0.0 | 1.0 |
3 | KP | 1–3 | Transconductance parameter | A V^{−2} | 2.0e-5 | 3.1e-5 |
4 | GAMMA | 1–3, 6 | Bulk threshold parameter | V^{1/2} | 0.0 | 0.37 |
5 | PHI | 1–3, 6 | Surface potential (U) | V | 0.6 | 0.65 |
6 | LAMBDA | 1, 2, 6 | Channel-length modulation (L) | V^{−1} | 0.0 | 0.02 |
7 | RD | 1–3, 6 | Drain ohmic resistance | Ω | 0.0 | 1.0 |
8 | RS | 1–3, 6 | Source ohmic resistance | Ω | 0.0 | 1.0 |
9 | CBD | 1–3, 6 | Zero-bias B-D junction capacitance | F | 0.0 | 20f |
10 | CBS | 1–3, 6 | Zero-bias B-S junction capacitance | F | 0.0 | 20f |
11 | IS | 1–3, 6 | Bulk junction saturation current (I_{S}) | A | 1.0e-14 | 1.0e-15 |
12 | PB | 1–3, 6 | Bulk junction potential | V | 0.8 | 0.87 |
13 | CGSO | 1–3, 6 | Gate-source overlap capacitance per meter channel width | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 4.0e-11 |
14 | CGDO | 1–3, 6 | Gate-drain overlap capacitance per meter channel width | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 4.0e-11 |
15 | CGBO | 1–3, 6 | Gate-bulk overlap capacitance per meter channel length | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 2.0e-10 |
16 | RSH | 1–3, 6 | Drain and source diffusion sheet resistance | Ω/square | 0.0 | 10.0 |
17 | CJ | 1–3, 6 | Zero-bias bulk junction bottom capacitance per sq-meter of junction area | F m^{−2} | 0.0 | 2.0e-4 |
18 | MJ | 1–3, 6 | Bulk junction bottom grading coefficient | - | 0.5 | 0.5 |
19 | CJSW | 1–3, 6 | Zero-bias bulk junction sidewall capacitance per meter of junction perimeter | F m^{−1} | 0.0 | 1.0e-9 |
20 | MJSW | 1–3, 6 | Bulk junction sidewall grading coefficient | - | 0.50 (level 1) 0.33 (level 2, 3, 6) | |
21 | JS | 1–3, 6 | Bulk junction saturation current per sq-meter of junction area | A m^{−2} | 0.0 | |
22 | TOX | 1–3, 6 | Oxide thickness | m | 1.0e-7 | 1.0e-7 |
23 | NSUB | 1–3, 6 | Substrate doping | cm^{−3} | - | 4.0e15 |
24 | NSS | 1–3, 6 | Surface state density | cm^{−2} | 0.0 | 1.0e10 |
25 | NFS | 2, 3 | Fast surface state density | cm^{−2} | 0.0 | 1.0e10 |
26 | TPG | 1–3, 6 | Type of gate material: +1 opposite to substrate; -1 same as substrate; 0 Al gate | - | 1.0 | |
27 | XJ | 2, 3 | Metallurgical junction depth | m | 0.0 | 1u |
28 | LD | 1–3, 6 | Lateral diffusion | m | 0.0 | 0.8u |
29 | U0 | 1–3, 6 | Surface mobility | cm^{2} V^{−1} s^{−1} | 600 | 700 |
30 | UCRIT | 2 | Critical field for mobility degradation | V cm^{−1} | 1.0e4 | 1.0e4 |
31 | UEXP | 2 | Critical field exponent in mobility degradation | - | 0.0 | 0.1 |
32 | UTRA | – | Transverse field coefficient (mobility) (not implemented) | - | 0.0 | 0.3 |
33 | VMAX | 2, 3 | Maximum drift velocity of carriers | m s^{−1} | 0.0 | 5.0e4 |
34 | NEFF | 2 | Total channel-charge (fixed and mobile) coefficient | - | 1.0 | 5.0 |
35 | KF | 1–3 | Flicker noise coefficient | - | 0.0 | 1.0e-26 |
36 | AF | 1–3 | Flicker noise exponent | - | 1.0 | 1.2 |
37 | FC | 1–3, 6 | Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance formula | - | 0.5 | |
38 | DELTA | 2, 3 | Width effect on threshold voltage | - | 0.0 | 1.0 |
39 | THETA | 3 | Mobility modulation | V^{−1} | 0.0 | 0.1 |
40 | ETA | 3 | Static feedback | - | 0.0 | 1.0 |
41 | KAPPA | 3 | Saturation field factor | - | 0.2 | 0.5 |
42 | TNOM | 1–3, 6 | Parameter measurement temperature | °C | 27 | 50 |
43 | KV | 6 | Saturation voltage factor | - | 2 | - |
44 | NV | 6 | Saturation voltage coefficient | - | 0.5 | |
45 | KC | 6 | Saturation current factor | - | 5.0e-5 | |
46 | NC | 6 | Saturation current coefficient | - | 1 | |
47 | NVTH | 6 | Threshold voltage coefficient | V | 0.5 | |
48 | PS | 6 | Saturation current modification parameter | V | 0 | |
49 | GAMMA1 | 6 | Bulk threshold parameter 1 | V^{1/2} | 0 | |
50 | SIGMA | 6 | Static feedback effect parameter | V^{1/2} | 0 | |
51 | LAMBDA0 | 6 | Channel length modulation parameter 0 | V^{−1} | 0 | |
52 | LAMBDA1 | 6 | Channel length modulation parameter 1 | V^{−1} | 0 | |
53 | ALPHA | 3 | alpha | m^{2} V^{−1} | 0.0 | 1.3e-13 |
54 | XD | 3 | Depletion layer width | m | 0.0 | 3.5e-7 |
The level 4 and level 5 (BSIM1 and BSIM2) parameters are all values obtained from process characterization, and can be generated automatically. J. Pierret [4] describes a means of generating a 'process' file, and the program Proc2Mod provided with SPICE3 converts this file into a sequence of BSIM1 '.MODEL' lines suitable for inclusion in a SPICE input file. Parameters marked below with an * in the l/w column also have corresponding parameters with a length and width dependency. For example, VFB is the basic parameter with units of volts, and LVFB and WVFB幸运飞艇超稳计划群 also exist and have units of volt-meter The formula
$$ p = p_0 + { p_{\rm l} \over l_{\rm eff} } + { w_{\rm l} \over w_{\rm eff} } $$
幸运飞艇超稳计划群is used to evaluate the parameter for the actual device specified with
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 $$ l_{\rm eff} = l_{\rm input}-dl $$
and
$$ w_{\rm eff} = w_{\rm input}-dw $$
Note that unlike the other models in SPICE, the BSIM model is designed for use with a process characterization system that provides all the parameters, thus there are no defaults for the parameters, and leaving one out is considered an error. For an example set of parameters and the format of a process file, see the SPICE2 implementation notes [3]. For more information on BSIM2, see reference [5].
spice bsim (level 4) parameters:
Name | Parameter | Units | L/w |
---|---|---|---|
VFB | Flat-band voltage | V | * |
PHI | Surface inversion potential | V | * |
K1 | Body effect coefficient | V^{1/2} | * |
K2 | Drain/source depletion charge-sharing coefficient | - | * |
ETA | Zero-bias drain-induced barrier-lowering coefficient | - | * |
MUZ | Zero-bias mobility | cm^{2} V^{−1} s^{−1} | |
DL | Shortening of channel | µm | |
DW | Narrowing of channel | µm | |
U0 | Zero-bias transverse-field mobility degradation coefficient | V^{−1} | * |
U1 | Zero-bias velocity saturation coefficient | µm V^{−1} | * |
X2MZ | Sens. of mobility to substrate bias at V=0 | cm^{2} V^{−2} s^{−1} | * |
X2E | Sens. of drain-induced barrier lowering effect to substrate bias | V^{−1} | * |
X3E | Sens. of drain-induced barrier lowering effect to drain bias at V_{ds}=V_{dd} | V^{−1} | * |
X2U0 | Sens. of transverse field mobility degradation effect to substrate bias | V^{−2} | * |
X2U1 | Sens. of velocity saturation effect to substrate bias | µm V^{−2} | * |
MUS | Mobility at zero substrate bias and at V_{ds}=V_{dd} | cm^{2} V^{−2} s^{−1} | |
X2MS | Sens. of mobility to substrate bias at V_{ds}=V_{dd} | cm^{2} V^{−2} s^{−1} | * |
X3MS | Sens. of mobility to drain bias at V_{ds}=V_{dd} | cm^{2} V^{−2} s^{−1} | * |
X3U1 | Sens. of velocity saturation effect on drain bias at V_{ds}=V_{dd} | µm V^{−2} | * |
TOX | Gate oxide thickness | µm | |
TEMP | Temperature at which parameters were measured | °C | |
VDD | Measurement bias range | V | |
CGDO | Gate-drain overlap capacitance per meter channel width | F m^{−1} | |
CGSO | Gate-source overlap capacitance per meter channel width | F m^{−1} | |
CGBO | Gate-bulk overlap capacitance per meter channel length | F m^{−1} | |
XPART | Gate-oxide capacitance-charge model flag | - | |
N0 | Zero-bias subthreshold slope coefficient | - | * |
NB | Sens. of subthreshold slope to substrate bias | - | * |
ND | Sens. of subthreshold slope to drain bias | - | * |
RSH | Drain and source diffusion sheet resistance | Ω/square | |
JS | Source drain junction current density | A m^{−2} | |
PB | Built in potential of source drain junction | V | |
MJ | Grading coefficient of source drain junction | - | |
PBSW | Built in potential of source, drain junction sidewall | V | |
MJSW | Grading coefficient of source drain junction sidewall | - | |
CJ | Source drain junction capacitance per unit area | F m^{−2} | |
CJSW | Source drain junction sidewall capacitance per unit length | F m^{−1} | |
WDF | Source drain junction default width | m | |
DELL | Source drain junction length reduction | m |
XPART=0 selects a 40/60 drain/source charge partition in saturation, while XPART=1 selects a 0/100 drain/source charge partition.
ND, NG, and NS are the drain, gate, and source nodes, respectively. MNAME is the model name, AREA is the area factor, and OFF indicates an (optional) initial condition on the device for dc analysis. If the area factor is omitted, a value of 1.0 is assumed. The (optional) initial condition specification, using IC=VDS, VGS is intended for use with the UIC option on the .TRAN control line, when a transient analysis is desired starting from other than the quiescent operating point. See the .IC control line for a better way to set initial conditions.
3.4.9 MESFETs
General form:
ZXXXXXXX ND NG NS MNAME [AREA] [OFF] [IC=VDS, VGS]
Examples:
Z1 7 2 3 ZM1 OFF
ND, NG, and NS are the drain, gate, and source nodes, respectively. MNAME is the model name, AREA is the area factor, and OFF indicates an (optional) initial condition on the device for dc analysis. If the area factor is omitted, a value of 1.0 is assumed. The (optional) initial condition specification, using 'IC=VDS, VGS' is intended for use with the UIC option on the .TRAN control line, when a transient analysis is desired starting from other than the quiescent operating point. See the .IC control line for a better way to set initial conditions.
3.4.10 MESFET Models (NMF/PMF)
MacSpice provides several non-standard mesfet devices.
The standard MESFET model is derived from the GaAs FET model of Statz et al. as described in [11]. The dc characteristics are defined by the parameters VTO, B, and BETA, which determine the variation of drain current with gate voltage, ALPHA, which determines saturation voltage, and LAMBDA, which determines the output conductance. The formula are given by:
$$ i_d = { \beta (v_{\rm gs} - v_{\rm t})^2 \over 1 + b(v_{\rm gs} - v_{\rm t})} \left[ 1 - \left[ 1 - \alpha { v_{\rm ds}\over 3} \right]^3 \right] \left( 1+\lambda v_{\rm ds}\right) \quad{\rm for}\quad0 < v_{\rm ds} < {3\over\alpha} $$
幸运飞艇超稳计划群 $$ i_d = { \beta (v_{\rm gs} - v_{\rm t})^2 \over 1 + b(v_{\rm gs} - v_{\rm t})} \left( 1+\lambda v_{\rm ds}\right)\quad{\rm for} \quad {3\over\alpha} < v_{\rm ds} $$
Two ohmic resistances, RD and RS, are included. Charge storage is modeled by total gate charge as a function of gate-drain and gate-source voltages and is defined by the parameters CGS, CGD, and PB.
Name | Parameter | Units | Default | Example | Area |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
VTO | Pinch-off voltage | V | -2.0 | -2.0 | |
BETA | Transconductance parameter | A V^{−2} | 1.0e-4 | 1.0e-3 | * |
B | Doping tail extending parameter | V^{−1} | 0.3 | 0.3 | * |
ALPHA | Saturation voltage parameter | V^{−1} | 2 | 2 | * |
LAMBDA | Channel-length modulation parameter | V^{−1} | 0 | 1.0e-4 | |
RD | Drain ohmic resistance | Ω | 0 | 100 | * |
RS | Source ohmic resistance | Ω | 0 | 100 | * |
CGS | Zero-bias G-S junction capacitance | F | 0 | 5pF | * |
CGD | Zero-bias G-D junction capacitance | F | 0 | 1pF | * |
PB | Gate junction potential | V | 1 | 0.6 | |
KF | Flicker noise coefficient | - | 0 | ||
AF | Flicker noise exponent | - | 1 | ||
FC | Coefficient for forward-bias depletion capacitance formula | - | 0.5 |